By 1874, the year of the Adair’s western safari, the industrial pace of the buffalo slaughter posed their extinction. As demand back East escalated and expert hunters descended en masse, this imperiled all Plains Indian societies dependent on the herds. Fully aware of these predations - especially the accumulation and fire sale of hides - many Commanche, Kiowa and Cheyenne bands bolted from “their” Oklahoma/”Indian Territory” reservations. The Army was soon dispatched under commanders like Colonels Nelson A. Miles and Ranald “Bad Hand” Mackenzie to force them back.